A conventional LED lamp has 6 main components:
1. Base: It serves as the entry electrical power. There are multiple types based on the design and diameter of the base. The diagram below gives the some types of bases with their corresponding nomenclature. The most commonly used base type in India is B22 (Bayonet Type).
2. Electrical Connector: It serves as a housing for the connecting components of the driver and base.
3. Driver: The driver converts AC power supplied by the fixture into 12 volt DC current to run the LEDs. During the process of conversion, some heat is generated which affects the longevity of the bulb. In most cases it integrates electrical ballast which regulates current and provides sufficient voltage to start a lamp.
4. Heatsink: The primary purpose of this component is to dissipate the heat generated by the driver, thereby increasing the bulb longevity. Usually, it is constructed of aluminium fins.
5. LED Panel/Module: It is the circuit board that contains the array of LEDs producing light. The board may hold as few as one LED or an array of 10 or more LEDs.
6. Globe/Lens: Typically made of plastic, it is designed to diffuse the light produced by the LED module. The structure of the globe determines the dispersion of light.